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Friday, 18 August 2017

Offshore Wind Farms - VSC-based HVDC Connection

As very promising technology, especially from the technical viewpoint, the focus of this paper will be put on the VSC-based HVDC technology. Its main technical features as well as its model will be detailed. At the end, obtained simulation results for different faults and disturbances for one offshore wind farm connected with VSC-based HVDC technology will be presented.
2.      IGBT
3.      Offshore wind farm connection
4.       PWM
5.      Requirements
6.       Stability
7.       VSC


Fig. 1. Principal scheme of VCS-based HVDC connection

Fig. 2. Active and reactive power at the connection point during reactive power control

Fig. 3. Active and reactive power at the wind farm side during reactive power control

Fig. 4. Active power, reactive power and voltage at system and wind farm side in case of single phase short circuit near to the connection point - 100ms

Fig. 5. Active power, reactive power and voltage at system and wind farm side in case of single phase short circuit at the wind farm side - 100ms

The connection of an offshore wind farm depends primarily on the amount of power that has to be transmitted and the distance to the connection point.
Primarily due to comparatively small size and short distance to the connection point as well as due to its lower costs and experience, all actual offshore wind farms and those planned to be installed are still using/plan to use HVAC connection.
The advantages of using a HVDC solution are more significant with increase of the distance and power.
The VSC-based HVDC technology is due to its technical advantages like: active and, especially, reactive power control (voltage control), isolated operation, no need for an active commutation voltage etc. very good solution for an offshore wind farm connection. Performed simulation and their results of simulated faults and disturbances show that the technical requirements can be fulfilled.
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[2] Global Wind Energy Council. (2004). [Online]. Available:
[3] F.W. Koch, I. Erlich, F. Shewarega, and U. Bachmann, "Dynamic interaction of large offshore wind farms with the electric power system", in Proc. 2003 IEEE Power Tech Conf., Bologna, Italy, vol. 3, pp. 632-638.
[4] J.G. Slootweg and W.L. Kling, "Is the Answer Blowing in the Wind?", IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 1, pp. 26-33, Nov./Dec. 2003.

[5] Wind Energy Study 2004. [Online]. Available: