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Friday, 28 July 2017

Novel Back EMF Zero Difference Point Detection Based Sensorless Technique for BLDC Motor

In this paper a novel position sensorless scheme named Back EMF Zero Difference Point (ZDP) detection has been proposed for six-switch VSI converter fed permanent magnet BLDC motor. This technique is based on the comparison of back EMFs and detection of the points in the back EMF waveforms where they cross each other or in other words they are equal. Commutation point is achieved exactly at the same instant when the difference of back EMFs of any two phases becomes zero. The simulation study has been carried out for the proposed sensorless scheme. The proposed sensorless scheme has the excellent performance from zero to the extra high speed. The method needs no additional delay circuit as used for calculation of commutation point from back EMF ZCP and involves less calculation burden. The method is fault tolerant and accurate even in the case of noise in measurement (or estimation) of phase back EMFs. A nonzero threshold value proportional to input voltage (or reference speed) is used for overcoming the problem due to quantization and sampling for digital implementation. This method proves to be excellent substitute of hall sensing scheme as it also senses at zero speed.

1.      BLDC motor
2.      Back EMF ZDP
3.      Commutation
4.      Sensorless control
5.      Zero difference point.



Fig.1 VSI fed BLDC motor with indirect Back EMF detection scheme


Fig.2. Phase Back EMF ZDPs, switching signals, counter output and triggering sequence signals.

Fig.3. Steady state operation at the low speed of 600 rpm.

Fig.4. performance of proposed sensorless scheme at 17000 rpm

Fig.5. Noise immune performance during steady state operation for reference speed of 17000rpm.

Fig.6. sensing fault occurs at 0.5 second in the measurement of phase-B back EMF.

Fig.7. speed increases when sensing fault occurs (here phase-B sensing fault

In the proposed Back EMF Zero Difference Point (ZDP) detection method, the very first commutation signal is achieved at starting itself i.e. one step before the ZCP method, which proves the superiority of the method. The back EMF for the proposed scheme can be applied to various existing back EMF detection or estimation techniques. This technique is insensitive to the inherent noise in measurement (or estimation) of back EMF. This method does not need extra circuitry as needed for delay after ZCP for getting commutation point, thereby less computational complexity is involved. The speed (or input voltage) proportional threshold used for avoiding uncertainty in the zero difference of back EMF, sets its scope of wide usability in precise operation from zero to extra high speed. Operation at initial zero back EMF is the main strength of this method and it doesn’t necessitate separate starting techniques. Speed response at transient period is 0.15 ms faster than previous methods for identical motor parameters.

[1]   M.V.Kesava Rao, Department of Electrical technology, IISc Bangalore, ‘‘Brush Contact Drops in DC machines’’, Accepted 25-6-1934, Bangalore Press.
[2]    Y.S. Jeon, H.S. Mok, G.H. Choe, D.K. Kim, J.S. Ryu, “A New Simulation Model of BLDC Motor with Real Back EMF waveform”, 7 th workshop on Computers in power Electronics , 2000 (COMPEL 2000), page 217- 220.
[3]   Padmaja yedmale, “Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Fundamentals”, AN885, 2003 Microchip Technology.
[4]    S. Tara , Syfullah Khan Md “Simulation of sensorless operation of BLDC motor based on the zero cross detection from the line voltage” International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, vol 2, issue 12 , December 2013, ISSN 2320-3765.
J. R. Frus and B. C. Kuo, “Closed-loop control of step motors using waveform detection,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Stepping Motors and Systems, Leeds, U.K., 1976, pp. 77–84.